Many factors are thought to potentially influence the development of cancer, including genetics, environment and various lifestyle choices. Diet (or foods) can have effects that either promote or prevent cancer. Despite many studies being conducted each year to unravel the complex link between dairy consumption and cancer, several questions remain unanswered. A review of studies concludes that no definite answers (convincing evidence) are available yet and that the link between a complex exposure (dairy consumption) and a complex outcome (cancer) does not have a simple answer. Consequently, none of the World Cancer Research Fund’s recommendations for the prevention of cancer explicitly refer to dairy. Dairy seems to offer substantial and robust health benefits to women in reducing the risk of the common and serious colorectal cancers. Based on current knowledge, the protective effect of milk and dairy on the common and serious colorectal cancers in men may outweigh a potentially increased risk of prostate cancer. In a holistic approach, where balance, variety, moderation and nutritional adequacy are valued, dietary recommendations cannot omit dairy.