The Consumer Education Project of Milk SA

Glossary and References

Glossary and references

Glossary of terms

Yoghurt refers to low-fat, flavoured and sweetened yoghurt. Drinking yoghurt refers to low-fat, flavoured and sweetened drinking yoghurt.

Flavoured milk refers to low-fat flavoured and sweetened milk.

Maas is always full-cream, typically containing 3.66 g fat per 100 g.

Sports drinks refers to flavoured and sweetened commercial drinks with a typical 6 – 8% carbohydrate concentration.

Cereal bars is a snack made of breakfast cereal and other sticky ingredients into a chewy bar; also called breakfast bar.

Energy bars are bar-shaped food intended to boost physical energy, typically containing a combination of carbohydrates, proteins and fat, and fortified with vitamins and minerals.

Sport snack bars or liquid meal supplements are specially designed convenience bars or liquid, that helps an athlete address the special nutritional needs for their specific sport, in situations where everyday foods are not practical to eat.

Meal replacements are defined, formulated food that by itself, can replace one or more daily meals. It supplies the necessary macro nutrients as well as vitamins and minerals of a typical meal. It comes in a powdered form that has to be reconstituted with either milk or water.

Nutritional supplements are defined as concentrated sources of nutrients or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect that supplement the normal diet and can be in a tablet, capsule, syrup or powder form.

References

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  1. Janssen I. Physical activity guidelines for children and youth. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism. 2007 (32):S109 – 121.
  2. Corbin C et al. Concept 5: How much Physical Activity is enough? In: Concept of Fitness and Wellness. A Comprehensive Lifestyle Approach. 2011:85 – 96. McGrawHill. New York.
  3. Maughan RJ. Nutrition and Football. 2006. Taylor & Francis.
  4. Rampersaud et al. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight and academic performance in children and adolescents. JADA. 2005; 105 (5):743 – 760.
  5. Louis-Sylvester J et al. Highlighting the positive impact of increasing feeding frequency on metabolism and weight management. Forum Nutr. 2003 (56):126 – 128.
  6. ADA. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Benchmarks for Nutrition in Child Care. JADA. 2011; 111 (4):607 – 614.
  7. Burke L & Deakin V. Clinical Sports Nutrition. 3rd edition. McGrawHill. Australia. 2007.
  8. Rodriquez NR et al. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stands: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada; American College of Sports Medicine. Med Sci Sports Ex. 2009; 41 (3):709 – 731.
  9. Tipton K. Optimizing training adaptations by manipulating protein intake. In: Jeukendrup A. Sports Nutrition. From lab to kitchen. 2010:71 – 79. Meyer & Meyer Sport. Cape Town.
  10. Williams MH. Nutrition for health, fitness and sport. 8th edition. 2007. McGrawHill. St Louis.
  11. Langenhoven M et al. MRC Food Composition Tables. 3rd edition. 1991.
  12. Maughan RJ & Shirreffs SM. Dehydration and rehydration in competitive sport. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010; 20 (Suppl 3):40 – 47.
  13. Rosner MH & Kirven J. Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007; 2:151 – 161.
  14. Burke L. Nutrition for Recovery. In: Jeukendrup A. Sports Nutrition: From lab to kitchen. 2010:48 – 53. Meyer & Meyer Sport. Cape Town.
  15. Bean A. Anita Bean’s sport nutrition for young athletes. 2010. A & C Black. London.
  16. National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS). Position statement and recommendations for the use of energy drinks by young athletes. 2008. NFHS.
  17. Molinero O & Marquez S. Use of nutritional supplements in sports: risks, knowledge and behavioural related factors. Nutr Hosp. 2009; 24 (2):128 – 134.
  18. Maughan RJ. Contamination of dietary supplements and positive drug tests in sport. J Sports Sci. 2005; 23 (9):883– 889.
  19. Kreider RB et al. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research and recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010; 7:7.
  20. Jeukendrup A. Sports Nutrition – From Lab to Kitchen. 2010. Meyer and Meyer Sport. Cape Town.
  21. Armstrong, L.E., Soto, J.A., Hacker, F.T., Casa, D.J., Kavouikas, S.A., Maresh, C.M. 1988. ‘Urinary indices during dehydration, exercise, and rehydration.’ Int. J. Sport Nutr. 8:345-355.
  22. Wolmarans P. et al. 2010. Condensed Food Composition Tables for South Africa. Medical Research Council. Cape Town.
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